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No salesman will call.
‘Tis the season � to plant natives
The California Native Plant Society holds its annual sale of native plants
When: Saturday-Sunday, Oct. 22-23, 10 AM to 3 PM both days
CNP Member Pre-Sale: Saturday, 9:30-10 AM members get 10% off plants & books
Where: Sepulveda Garden Center, 16633 Magnolia Blvd, (near Hayvenhurst), Encino, San Fernando Valley
Directions: Exit Fwy#101 at Balboa Blvd.,south .4 miles to Magnolia, left on Magnolia and .4 miles to Garden Center.
Come early on Saturday for best selection
Weblink to CNPS Flyer
Weblink to Map
They will have two special speakers:
Saturday, noon: Barbara Eisenstein – Wild Suburbia: Learning to Garden with Native Plants
Sunday, noon: Steve Gerischer – Designing a Native Garden in a Limited Space
If you can’t make it to this sale, Theodore Payne’s annual sale is the following week, 27-29 October, 8:30 am – 4:30 pm. Watch for announcements on our blog.
As the summer sunbathers leave, the lagoon and beach fill up with migrants and wintering birds arriving from the north. It may be sunny, it may be cool, but it probably won’t rain. Whether you’re experienced or new to our coastal birds, this would be a great day to introduce yourself to them
Some of the great birds we’ve had in October are: Snow Goose; Bufflehead; Common Loon; Horned, Eared & Western Grebes; Brandt’s & Pelagic Cormorants; Osprey; Cooper’s Hawk; Merlin; Peregrine Falcon; Sora; Snowy Plover; Black Oystercatcher; Ruddy & Black Turnstones; Pectoral Sandpiper; Dunlin; Heermann’s, Mew, California & Herring Gulls; Caspian, Forster’s, Common, Royal & Elegant Terns; Anna’s & Allen’s Hummingbird; Black-hooded Parakeet; Say’s Phoebe; Tree & Violet-Green Swallows; Marsh Wren; Black-throated Gray and Townsend’s Warblers; Western Meadowlark.
Adult Walk 8:30 a.m. – Beginner and experienced, 2-3 hours. Species range from 40 in June to 60-75 during migrations and winter. We meet at the metal-shaded viewing area (see photo below) next to the parking lot and begin walking east towards the lagoon. We always check the offshore rocks and the ocean. When lagoon outlet is closed we continue east around the lagoon to Adamson House. We put out special effort to make our monthly Malibu Lagoon walks attractive to first-time and beginning birdwatchers. So please, if you are at all worried about coming on a trip and embarrassing yourself because of all the experts, we remember our first trips too. Someone showed us the birds; now it’s our turn.
Children and Parents Walk 10:00 a.m. One hour session, meeting at the metal-shaded viewing area (see photo above) between parking lot and channel. We start at 10:00 for a shorter walk and to allow time for families to get it together on a sleepy Sunday morning. Our leaders are experienced with kids so please bring them to the beach! We have an ample supply of binoculars that children can use without striking terror into their parents. We want to see families enjoying nature. (If you have a Scout Troop or other group of more than seven people, you must call Lu (310-395-6235) to make sure we have enough binoculars and docents.)
Directions: Malibu Lagoon is at the intersection of Pacific Coast Highway and Cross Creek Road. Look around for people wearing binoculars.
Parking: Parking machine recently installed in the lagoon lot: 1 hr $3; 2 hrs $6; 3 hrs $9, all day $12 ($11 seniors); credit cards accepted. Annual passes accepted. You may also park (read the signs carefully) either along PCH west of Cross Creek Road, on Cross Creek Road, or on Civic Center Way north (inland) of the shopping center. Lagoon parking in shopping center lots is not permitted.
Map to Meeting Place
2016: Jan-June 2015: Jan-May, July-Dec
2014: Jan-July, July-Dec 2013: Jan-June, July-Dec
2012: Jan-June, July -Dec 2011: Jan-June, July-Dec
2010: Jan-June, July-Dec 2009: Jan-June, July-Dec.
Nearly all local aficionados of California native plants know that Theodore Payne Foundation for Wild Flowers and Native Plants is one of the best sources around. Stock up on now on stuff to replace your lawn. Their Open-to-All fall sale starts soon. You can join for $30/year and get additional discounts right away. This is from their email posting:
Dear Friend of TPF: Autumn is the best season for planting — and time for our annual Fall Plant Sale, which runs Thursday-Saturday, October 27-29, with discounts available to all on all days.
The nursery and store shelves are bursting with hundreds of different native plants and seed, all ready for fall planting in your garden. Read on for details!
Link to their flyer
Thursday-Saturday, October 27-29, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m.
Member Discounts all day: 15% off plants, seeds and bulbs
Non-member Discounts after 11 am: 10% off plants, seeds and bulbs
Not yet a member? Join at the door!
Summer Hours: Open Thursday-Saturday, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. (Closed Sunday-Wednesday)
This Week’s Lesson – Don’t Eat That Bird! Part 2
The ground begins to shift beneath our feet
These are the birds that you shall regard as vermin, and for this reason they shall not be eaten: the griffon-vulture, the black vulture, and the bearded vulture; the kite and every kind of falcon; every kind of crow, the desert-owl, the short-eared owl, the long-eared owl, and every kind of hawk; the tawny owl, the fisher-owl, and the screech-owl; the little owl, the horned owl, the osprey, the stork, every kind of cormorant, the hoopoe, and the bat. Leviticus 11:13-19 New English Bible
Last time we looked at the owls and their noteworthy domination of this list, comprising eight of the nineteen listed birds, excluding the bat. This peculiar preponderance led me to check the footnotes in my New English Bible, where I found evidence for the translator(s) uncertainty, indicated by the following possible substitutions: eagle for griffon-vulture, ossifrage for bearded vulture, raven for crow, and heron for stork. These uncertainties are quite understandable to the experienced birder.
The griffon-vulture, or Eurasian Vulture, or Eurasian Griffon as it is currently known, is superficially like an eagle. A very large carnivore, soaring on wide, flat wings, it is resident from northern India to Spain, including Palestine, where it nests in cliffside colonies. Many raptor species breeding in Eurasia, including Eurasian Griffons, migrate through Palestine to their wintering grounds in southern Egypt, Sudan, and across sub-Saharan Africa. [Israel is famous for springtime raptor migrations.] The Israelites would have been quite familiar with them. It’s not only translators who have a problem differentiating vultures from eagles, as the Wikipedia Commons title for the above Griffon Vulture photo is “An eagle near Haifa.” All Old-World vultures have a long, drooping neck, unlike any eagle, which have thick, short necks. This difference is quite obvious, even at great distances. [The short necks of the seven species of New World Vultures do not droop, one reason why they were recently classified into their own family, Cathartidae.] All vultures, with one exception, are exclusively carnivorous, eating only animals they have found already dead. (The exception is the Palm-nut Vulture of sub-Saharan Africa. Guess what it eats.) This habit is quite disgusting to most people. But consider this: when was the last time you ate a live animal? I prefer my food to have stopped thrashing about, at the very least, thank you.
Ossifrage (from Latin for “bone” + “break”is an archaic name for Bearded Vulture, also known as Lammergeier (German for “lamb vulture”). This unusual vulture ranges from South Africa to southern France to western China. For millennia, Tibetan and western Chinese “bonebreakers” relied upon vultures to eat the flesh of their corpses, and the “ossifrage” to carry away and devour the bones of their dead. In the Palestine area, they currently nest in Turkey, Jordan, Egypt and Arabia. They have the curious dining preference of carrying bones to great heights, dropping them on rocks, and then descending to eat both shattered bone and marrow. This seems like an odd way to get a meal, but they’re the only bird doing this, so they have the niche to themselves. At some unidentifiable time past, by the way, the fresh-fish-eating Osprey was confused with and misnamed for this bird. The name “Osprey” derives from “ossifrage.” Needless to say, Ospreys do not swallow large bones.
Ravens are very closely related to crows, and share the genus Corvus. Indeed, ravens could be simply considered large crows, or crows small ravens. This genus has been very successful, and its 42 species have spread worldwide, excepting South and Central America, from its ancient Australasian origin. They are very intelligent and social, and a crow family may stay together many years. Omnivorous, they eat all kinds of plant and animal matter. They particularly love road kills and garbage. There are four species than likely lived in ancient Palestine, as discussed in lesson five: Jackdaw, Hooded Crow, Common Raven and Brown-necked Raven. The various jays, magpies and choughs, although also in the family Corvidae, are less likely to be confused with either raven or crow.
Herons are easily mistaken for storks, although they are only distantly related. They are an example of convergent evolution: similar living situations cause unrelated animals to evolve similar body styles and habits. Both are long-necked, long-legged wading birds. Of the 19 stork species only the Wood Stork lives in North America. The Black Stork and White Stork migrate through Palestine in spring and fall, but nest no closer than central Turkey. Storks eat many snails and other invertebrates, food items also forbidden to the Israelites. The White Stork is famous for nesting on chimneys and rooftops all across Europe. It was considered a sign of good fortune and especially good fertility, for a stork to nest on your rooftop; this gave rise to the popular image of the stork carrying a human baby in its bill. Herons are world-wide, and also eat many invertebrates, amphibians and other fare forbidden to the Israelites. In Palestine, herons are represented by Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea) Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) and Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), the same species we have in America.
But these small notations did not satisfy my curiosity. I decided to check a little further, and see how this passage might read in another translation of the Bible. What I found was pretty interesting, with far-reaching ramifications.
This is as good a time as any to cite, in passing, the verses immediately following those cited above. If you don’t understand why, check the picture below.
All teeming winged creatures that go on four legs shall be vermin to you, except those which have legs jointed above their feet for leaping on the ground. Of these you may eat every kind of great locust, every kind of long-headed locust, every kind of green locust, and every king of desert locust. Every other teeming winged creature that has four legs you shall regard as vermin… Leviticus 11:20-23
To get you ready for our next lesson, here’s the translation from the Masoretic Text. Compare it to the version from the New English Bible, cited at the top.
And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing; the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray; and the kite, and the falcon after its kinds; every raven after its kinds; and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds; and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl; and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture; and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat. Leviticus 10:13-19
Bible Factoid #9 – Seeing “Red”
Did Moses lead the Children of Israel across a sea of red or a sea of reed? This argument has long raged well out of sight of the average Christian.
The Changing Translation of ס֜וּף “sup” as “reed” or “red”
The word ס֜וּף “sup” (or “suph”) occurs 28 times in the Jewish scriptures. The first book, Genesis, does not use it, instead using the adjective אַדְמוֹנִ֔י ad-mo-nee, translated as “red” or “ruddy,” three times, first in Genesis 25:25 in reference to Abraham’s grandson Esau.
ס֜וּף sup first appears in reference to baby Moses, floating in his tiny boat among the reeds.
So she got a rush basket for him [baby Moses], made it watertight with clay and tar, laid him in it, and put it among the reeds (בַּסּ֖וּף – bas-sup “in/among the reeds”) by the banks of the Nile. Exodus 2:3 NEB
She [Pharoh’s daughter] noticed the basket among the reeds (הַסּ֔וּף – has-sup “the reeds”) and sent her slave-girl for it. Exo 2:5 NEB
At Exodus 10:19, the first mention of the “sea of red,” the translation changes.
The Lord changed the wind into a westerly gale, which carried the locusts away and swept them into the Red Sea (יָ֣מָּה – yah-mah “into the sea” + סּ֑וּף – sup “”red”). Exo 10:19 NEB
The Red Sea is next mentioned in connection to the Israelites fleeing Egypt, crossing the water and the drowning of Pharaoh’s army.
So God made them go round by way of the wilderness towards the Red Sea (יַם־ – yam “of the sea” + ס֑וּף sup “red”); and the fifth generation of Israelites departed from Egypt. Exo 13:18 New English Bible (NEB 1976)
The chariots of Pharaoh and his army he has cast into the sea; the flower of his officers are engulfed in the Red Sea (בְיַם־ – be-yam “sea” + סֽוּף׃ – sup “in the red”). The watery abyss has covered them, they sank into the depths like a stone. Exo 15:4-5 (NEB)
NEB footnotes Exo 13:18: “Red Sea: literally ‘Sea of Reeds,’ and hence a shallow papyrus marsh on the border of Egypt. The Red Sea is the name of the Gulf of Elath, much further east.” ff. pg 69. [I’m not sure the Elath part is correct. Elath is now Eilat, the city at the north end of the Gulf of Aqaba, the northeastern extension of the Red Sea which borders the east coast of the Sinai Peninsula. The Red Sea’s northwestern extension, the Gulf of Suez, lies between mainland Egypt and the Sinai west coast. Unfortunately, the NEB gives no further explanation.]
From this point through Jeremiah 49:21, whenever סּ֑וּף – sup modifies יַם־ – yam “sea,” it is translated as “red.”
The very last use of ס֔וּף – sup defines it as “weeds,” far closer to “reed” than to “red” in meaning:
The water about me rose up to my neck; the ocean was closing over me. Weeds (ס֖וּף – sup “the weeds”) twined about my head in the troughs of the mountains;… Jonah 2:5
Summarizing the ס֔וּף – sup translation problem:
1. ס֔וּף – sup occurs twenty-eight times, always classified as a noun; in the twenty-four occurrences where it modifies יַם־ – yam“sea” is it translated as “red.”
2. When it does not modify יַם־ – yam“sea,” it is translated as “reeds” (Exo 2:3 & 2:5); “reeds,” “rushes” or “flags;” (Isaiah 19:6), or “weeds” Jon 2:5)
3. If translation erred – intentionally or unintentionally – at the first usage of “red,” (Exo 10:19), probability is high that in all subsequent usage in the same context, “the __ sea,” would be similarly mistranslated.
4. Scholars’ commentaries on these verses usually indicate that “reed” or “weed” is correct, not “red”: Exo 2:3, Exo 10:19, Exo 13:18.
The Red Sea
Egypt’s current capital, Cairo, is ninety miles from the Gulf of Suez. Thebes, the capital around 1300 BCE, was one hundred miles from the Red Sea. That’s a very long way for locusts to be blown, as Exo 10:19 claims, using the first translation of ס֔וּף – sup as “red.” Crops were
grown primarily in the fertile alluvial soil of the Nile delta; the ancient “store-cities” of Pithom and Per-Rameses built by the Israelites (Exo 1:11) were nearby. From either Pithom (some say Tell el-Maskhusa, nine miles west of Ismaliya on the Suez Canal) or Per-Rameses (Qantir), it is thirty miles to the large lakes now bisected by the Suez Canal. Scattered lakes and ponds abound throughout the area. These distances are far more reasonable for the blowing of locusts. The fastest route to and through the Sinai would be through this area, and opportunities would abound for losing potential pursuers among the marshlands, lakes and wadis.
In ancient Egypt, papyrus (גֹּ֔מֶא – go-me) (reeds) were abundant along the Nile and in the delta, and harvested for both domestic and export use. People can travel and avoid detection among beds of towering papyrus. Water levels in shallow marshes can fluctuate, strong winds can raise waves. Whether one’s neighborhood consists of buildings, fences and alleys, or of wadis, marshes and reeds, there are always “locals” who know the fast and surreptitious routes. Moses, living east of Egypt, and his brother Aaron, living within Egypt, may have been such people. They could lead people on foot safely, quickly and secretly through areas which would mire horses and wheeled vehicles. Moses knew the Sinai – the water holes, the edible plants, when the Common Quail came through in the millions. In this scenario, Moses is less the God-struck prophet freeing his people and binding them to God, than the wily Mexican-style coyote, leading people, perhaps repeatedly, across a border to “the promise land,” and a better life of freedom and prosperity.
Whether “Israelites” ever lived in Egypt, fled Egypt for elsewhere, or were pursued by troops cannot be settled now. But the “Sea of Red” is too wide (150 miles) to be crossed in a few days, let alone a few hours, and too far from the hard-labor slaves located in the delta. But a “sea of reeds” near the delta fits what few details Exodus gives without forcing us to swallow unlikely translations which necessitate miracles.
The Septuagint (LXX)
According to numerous sources, such as Bible Archeology:
The “Red Sea” phrase came into the account with the third century BC translation of the Old Testament into Greek. Called the Septuagint (abbreviated as LXX), its translators made yam suph (“Sea of Reeds”) into [ἐρυθρὰν θάλασσαν] eruthrá thálassē (“Red Sea”). The Latin Vulgate followed their lead with mari Rubro (“Red Sea”) and most English versions continued that tradition.
The number of websites discussing this problem are legion. The reasons to choose “reed” seem rational and reasonable. The reasons to choose “red” are based on tradition and a faith-based need for miracles.
Additional sites arguing for “reed”: Additional sites arguing for “red”:
Christianity – Stack Exchange Orthodox Union
Ancient Near East – Just the Facts Religion Today
The Bible Journey United Church of God – Beyond Today
Part I – What About That Dove?
Part II – Sandgrouse or Quail?
Part III – Junglefowl in Judea!
Part IV – Birds that Sow, Reap and Store
Part V – The Friendly Raven
Part VI – The Humble Hoopoe
Part VII – The Wise Hoopoe
Part VIII –Don’t Eat That Bird! Part 1
Next time: Don’t Eat Which Bird? Translation problems, or Who said What.
Tree of Life To navigate Tree Of Life, click binoculars icon in upper right corner, enter bird name and press “next hit” until you get to your bird.
BibleHub.com An invaluable tool. Almost a “one-stop-shopping” research site for the bible.
BibleStudyTools.com A very useful site.
1. Birds of Europe. Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterström, D., Grant, P.J. (1999) Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
2. Dictionary of American Bird Names. Choate, Ernest A. (1985) Harvard Common Press, Boston.
3. Handbook of Birds of the World (HBW), Vol. 2. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. (1994) Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Vultures – Pgs 125-129.
4. Holy Scriptures: According to the Masoretic Text. (1955) The Jewish Publication Society of America. Philadelphia.
5. New English Bible with the Apocrypha, The: Oxford Study Edition. Sandmel, Samuel, Suggs, M. Jack, Tkacik, Arnold J.; eds. (1976) Oxford University Press, New York